School of Urban and Regional Planning

Theses and dissertations submitted to the School of Urban and Regional Planning

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Complete Streets are multimodal roads that are planned, designed, built and operated to be safe for all kinds of users.They increase travel options, flexibility, and usability, and they are of vital importance for sustainable development. The need for cleaner and more efficient urban mobility in Metro Manila has been recognized, and an extensive set of legal framework on sustainable transport is available. Given the potential of Complete Streets to enhance urban mobility and support economic and environmental sustainability, this research investigates why Complete Streets are not a rule rather than an exception in Metro Manila. Thus, the study assess the level of compliance of one of Metro Manila's LGUs (Quezon City) with Complete Streets concept, analyzing the content of its legal framework, as well as the planning and implementation of Complete Streets in the city. Moreover, the study seeks for reasons for the existing level of compliance, based on the institutional environment of the LGU. Finally, the completeness of one local road is evaluated based on its design and subjective assessments form street users. An important outcome of the research is the development of a methodology that can be applied to different municipalities and cities in the Philippines and abroad for the assessment of Complete Streets in terms of legal framework, planning and implementation.The results show a poor compliance of the local legal framework's content with Complete Streets concept, and low levels of planning and implementation of Complete Streets in the city. The road assessed was found not to be a Complete Street, and accordingly, it is not perceived as such by its users. Among the reasons for the low observance of Complete Streets principles, he most pressing are the prioritization of private motorized vehicles by the planning practices adopted, and culture and transportation habits of the population. Recommendations for enhancing the planning and implementation of Complete Streets in Quezon City include the adoption of a nationwide and/or metropolitan-wide Complete Streets policy; the rewriting of local policies to embrace Complete Streets; procedures and processes changes in the LGU; and the promotion of cultural changes. This research may provide policymakers and planners with a better understanding and basis on which to pursue street (re)design to create a safe, convenient and desirable network that accommodates all users.

When a disaster strikes, an adequate and timely response is critical to alleviate casualties and reduce health impacts.The first 72 hours post-disaster is considered the most critical time for any relief effort, as chances for survival without any food and water decrease significantly after this time period. Hence, the challenge is how to deliver the appropriate emergency supplies in the right quantities, exactly where and when these are needed. Foremost, the goal of typical response operations is to have critical services reach as many affected people in the shortest possible time, even at the expense operational-and cost-efficiency. However, with logistics accounting for 60-80% of response coast, there is much room for operations improvement. Increasing prices of fuel, coupled with a lack of coordination amongst government units, and an ad hoc assessment system add to this high logistics coast, which in turn reduces distribution of resources. Some humanitarian organizations (HO's) even state that a dollar spent in preparedness is worth seven dollars in response (Jahre, Ergun and Goentzel 2015). To help address theses issues, the research recommends the use of a physical distribution network composed of entry ports, main distribution hubs, local distribution centers, and the shortest land-based routes to link them. The result is a multi-level distribution and routing logistics model, tested against network failure and standard response time. In this model, emergency supplies are first received in permanent depots, and then shipped to temporary local distribution centers to be picked-up by the affected population. Using the island province of Bohol as a case study, this research contributes to the understanding of the relationships among vulnerability assessment, supply chain management, and a systematic needs assessment. The research anchors on two main premises: the humanitarian distribution network can capitalize on commercial supply chain management (SCM), and that vulnerability assessment is vital for physical network continuity. First, the research examines existing commercial supply chain models to determine network designs most applicable applicable to humanitarian logistics.These design guidelines are then validated against the existing logistics network of the study area. As part of the network's vulnerability assessment, the study area's natural hazards are interlaid with its existing physical and socio-economic context to visualize and analyze relationships between natural hazards, supply and distributions facilities, transport networks, and population distribution. The research concludes by providing general recommendations on how the logistics plan can be integrated into existing planning frameworks, especially in DRRM provisions in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Physical Development Plan. Considering that the Philippines is archipelagic in nature, a logistics study on an island province can then be duplicated to other similar areas.

Due to climate change and the accelerated growth in urbanization, Metro Manila is exposed to constant and extensive floods that are addressed through structural and nonstructural mitigation measures. However, the proportion of these measures vary depending on the specific context of each place. Therefore, this study aimed to find out the complementarity between structural and nonstructural flood mitigation measures to reduce exposure and increase adaptive capacity at the household level in Barangay of Ibayo Tipas in Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines. Researchers point out that structural measures have a direct impact at reducing exposure, while nonstructural measures tend to increase the adaptive capacity. This study examined if such notion applies to an area not frequently included in flood mitigation studies. Barangay Ibayo Tipas in Taguig City is an example of an area considered as highly susceptible and affected by flood events and yet accorded minimal interest and attention in terms of flood mitigation and management studies.The research results revealed that structural measures had a better implementation performance than nonstructural ones, mainly due to the regular progress in the implementation of the former compared to the irregular implementation of the latter. The study showed that the authorities of the local government unit of Taguig City were more focused on the implementation of these structural flood mitigation measures in order to prevent increased levels of exposure and reduce the damaging impacts of floods on the community. However, this focus did not significantly decrease exposure to flood events. On the other hand, while nonstructural measures were regularly implemented in the barangay, most of them were carried out only by the barangay government unit. yet, households in Barangay Ibayo Tipas preferred nonstructural measures, even if they were shown to have only low to moderate increase in the adaptive capacities of the households in the barangay. Despite theses results, the study showed complementarity between both measures in terms of addressing the number and types of impact of flooding in Barangay Ibayo Tipas. In terms of importance, nonstructural measures were considered three times better than structural measures in addressing the problem of flooding; on the other hand, with regard to operability performance, structural measures were 25% better performing than nonstructural ones. Overall assessment of complementarity revealed that structural and nonstructural measures were not enough to reduce flood exposure or increase adaptive capacity.

"Rapid global urbanization is occurring in the context of a series of urban challenges that threatens the cities’ sustainability. One relevant factor is the urban development pattern cities can apply. In that sense, compact development is claimed as the most suitable urban development strategies that contribute to sustainability. Although there is evidence of compact development virtues in some developed cities, there is insufficient documented evidence of its effectiveness in cities of developing countries. Aiming to provide recommendations to enhance urban sustainability, Makati City was selected as the study area for this research work.

The main objective of this research work is to analyze compact development effectiveness for urban sustainability, based on the experience of Makati City, in the Philippines. Its purpose is to provide recommendations to enhance sustainability of Makati City. In this regard, data collection was based on questionnaires/survey, analysis of documents (secondary data), and interviews with local officers. To analyze the data gathered, the researcher analyzed the level of compact development in Makati in comparison to other world cities, and examined the association between variables related to compactness and its strength through the use of correlation coefficients. Lack of available information and time constraints were the main limitations of the study.

In light of the results, compact development seems to be not effective enough for the urban sustainability of Makati City at present. Not all the potential environmental, economic, and social benefits of urban compactness are taking place yet. Nevertheless, according to the analysis undertaken, there are opportunities to improve and propel the effectiveness of the strategy for the sake of Makati’s sustainability. With this purpose, the city may focus its planning and management efforts towards harnessing such opportunities.

Finally, this is a contribution to the analysis of the effectiveness of compact strategies with respect to sustainability in developing countries, and these findings come from the specific experience of Makati. To determine that effectiveness in developing country cities, further studies need to be addressed and more evidence need to be presented.

"Launched in November 2007, the Next Wave Cities (NWCs) program was to promote alternative information technology and business process management (IT-BPM) locations in the country. Bacolod City has consistently been ranked among the top-ten NWCs since 2009. With this achievement, it would be beneficial to both the industry and the local government of Bacolod to document and assess the socioeconomic impact of the IT-BPM industry on the city and to identify significant factors of the rapid growth of the industry which is the objective of this study. It also provided more accurate information on the profile of the IT-BPM employees in the city and their contribution of Bacolod’s economy.

As of June 2013, the IT-BPM industry in Bacolod had a total of 14,000 employees of which at least 59% were women. The non-migrant rate for Bacolod IT-BPM workers was 62%. The study results showed that the total revenues received by employees is estimated at ₱3.73 billion annually which translates to ₱3 billion expenditure yearly. With 62% of these employees living in Bacolod, it can be assumed that about ₱1.87 billion per year can be spent collectively by the IT-BPM workers within Bacolod.

With the direct jobs, an additional 35,000 indirect jobs were also created with these workers in other industries earning the equivalent of ₱2,87 billion in salaries using non-agricultural salary rates. This figure also means that ₱2.3 billion is ploughed back into the local economy in the form of consumer spending. The multiple employment impact is probably the most significant effect of the establishment of IT-BPM firms in a locality.

More employment leads to more income, wealth generation, and tax revenues for the city as well as for the national treasury, the latter gaining from income tax withheld on the employees’ salaries. This study showed that 23% of the respondents saved an average of 19% of their income. This translates into savings of about ₱110 million for the current year and taxes on income of ₱185.9 million.

The study also revealed that good compensation and benefit packages are the reasons why respondents believed they have better living standards and improved quality of life as manifested by their pattern of expenditure and the optimism that they can access private education for their children. Respondents report that they have had a salary increase after an average length of stay in the industry of 20.6 months. Some 26% of the respondents perceived themselves as moving up to a higher income class. This study also showed that there is empowerment as there was an improved quality of the labor force as illustrated by the variable on personal growth.

Though most of the workers originated from Bacolod City, a total of 38% are migrants and returning migrants. Migration, commuting, and remittances are necessary for those who cannot land a job in their locality.

An assessment of the government support showed that support in terms of programs and policies and even infrastructure has improved. There is also increased capital investment in Bacolod mostly by the private sector.

Despite the positive impacts of the IT-BPM, there were some adverse impacts that were also noted. The older Bacolodnons are wary about the ill-effects of working at night, the immaturity of young workers to handle the higher income that they receive including how it is being spent. There is an unverifiable claim that the crime rates have increased and workers fall victims of hold-ups or snatching. There is also a feared increase in vices and drug abuse cases. And, most importantly, there is the anxiety that these young workers who are now more liberal and unconventional will become the future local generation. They will define the culture, discipline, and values of the next generation of Bacolodnons.