School of Urban and Regional Planning

Theses and dissertations submitted to the School of Urban and Regional Planning

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Rice remains an important crop as food and as a source of livelihood in the Philippines (Department of Agriculture [DA] 2012). Recently, the country experienced rice shortages due to several factors, which include climate change. The rice plant is considered as the most vulnerable crop to the changing climate (Mohanty et al. 2013). However, rice production is one of the major contributors of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that aggravate climate change. In the Philippines, the agriculture sector is the second largest GHG emission source (26% of the total emission), with rice cultivation as the top contributor (63% of the total agricultural emissions)(Dikitanan et al. 2017). Due to these interconnected problems of food productivity, climate change adaptation, and mitigation, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) introduced the concept of Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA). CSA is an approach that intends to transform and reorient agricultural development under the new realities of climate change (Lipper et al.2014). The aims of this thesis were two-fold. First, to determine the integration and implementation process of CSA in agriculture sector of Guinayangan, Quezon. Second, to develop CSA strategies for rice that other local government units (LGUs) in the Philippines can adopt based on the experiences of Guinayangan. The study employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative research designs to get an in-depth knowledge of the CSA program being implemented at the municipality-level. The study covered the municipality of Guinayangan, Quezon province, one of the pilot sites for the DA's program on Strengthening Implementation of Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative in Agriculture (AMIA) and is a model for CSA. The CSA program in Guinayangan is being jointly implemented by the LGU's Office of the Municipal Agriculture (OMA) and an NGO, the International Institute of Rice Reconstruction (IIRR). Through a community survey, 76 rice farmers from 8 barangays of Guinayangan, Quezon were interviewed. The survey results showed that all of the rice farmer-respondents are already adopting CSA interventions. The top five CSA interventions adopted are (1) enhanced farmers' field school (100%); (2) diversified rice farming system (91%); (3) simple seed banking (72%); (4) water submergence-tolerant varieties (53%); and (5) drought-tolerant varieties (53%). When asked about their perceived benefits on the over-all CSA program, 63 (82%) of the 76 respondents answered that they have benefitted from the CSA program. The most answered benefit is less input but improved rice yield. Looking at the CSA interventions adopted as well as the perceived benefits, one can deduce that the respondents placed higher value on productivity and adaptation, than mitigation. The study also looked into the integration and implementation process of CSA in Guinayangan, Quezon. Based on the key informant interviews, Guinayangan's CSA program is being implemented through this series of activities: (1) situation analysis; (2) prioritization of CSA interventions; (3) program design and implementation; (4) monitoring, evaluation, and learning; and (5) knowledge sharing outside the farmers' learning group. The study also proposed that moving forward, implementers of CSA program for rice could consider climate change hazards, existing farming practices, and the concept of integrated rice management in developing CSA best-bets portfolio for rice to achieve the optimum benefits of CSA (productivity, climate change adaptation, and mitigation).

The increase of Zamboanga City's population size and density time is inevitable. Similarly, increase in population sizes and densities at the barangay level are inevitable. Population sizes and densities of barangays, however, vary: there are those that are larger or that are growing faster compared to others; and there are those with population densities exceeding 50,000 and those still below 500 in 2010. Can population size and density increases be directed of guided location-wise The main objectives of the study are to characterize the spatial patterns of population distribution in Zamboanga City, more specifically the patterns across barangays, and then to examine the factors that may have influenced the pattern in the location of the city's population. The city has unique geographic configuration: the city center barangays are located at a tip of the peninsula and the outer barangays are located along the coastal areas on each of the East and West side of the peninsula. This study examined how population is distributed and how population increase had been accommodated spatially in such a setting. The barangay is used as the unit of analysis in the study; and, thus, land area, population size and population density were quantified by barangay and then analysed across the city's 98 barangays.The findings of the study saw unequal sizes of land area and population across Zamboanga City's barangays. The analysis of the concentration of population showed 80% of the city's population occupying only 20% of its land area. The degree of concentration changed very little at the city level form 1990 to 2010,but population concentration had varied across different areas of the city. Conclusions about densities of barangays include : differences in barangay level population densities reflected the observed inequality in population distribution; barangays in or near the city center have the highest population densities, while inland and high- elevation barangays on the East and West coasts have the least population density; and population density increase was widespread and had occurred in all barangays. Correlation analysis indicated the factors influencing population density and indicated, in turn, characteristics of residential locations preferred by residents. These preferred locations includes the following : being located in or near the CBD, in the West coast, in low elevation (or flat land) and in urban barangays. results from the barangay case studies showed preferred residential locations as those with employment opportunities (higher population density in barangays with industries), with available housing and with good road connections to the CBD. Other factors that brought high level or high increase in barangay population density may actually not be a result of private household preference but rather are due to decisions of private subdivision developers and due to actions of government such as resettlement projects and locating of military bases. One implication of the finding that there was widespread population density increase across the city's barangays is that this could later on lead to a number of environmental and other developmental issues, e.g. exceeding the carrying capacity of coastal and island barangays, and causing damage to environmentally critical areas in high-elevation barangays. But findings of their study also indicate that people respond to specific factors in choosing where to settle and, in fact, government can potentially influence (and direct) locations where population may reside. To address the environmental and development issues just mentioned, the general idea is for government to provide attractive alternative locations that would draw people away from hazardous areas and that would slow down movement into congested urban centers through instruments such as the zoning ordinance.

Community engagement has been a thrust of modern tourism development principle. In ecotourism, engagement of communities from planning, implementation until evaluation is vital to ensure that any development would be sustainable. However, it is easier said than done. This research aims to promote community engagement as a vital tool for a sustainable ecotourism development planning in a protected area by looking at the management approach and strategies employed towards ecotourism development. Specifically, it looks at the level of community engagement employed in the management of ecotourism in Naujan Lake Natural Park, assesses the management strategies employed for engaging communities, and determines its implications in sustainable ecotourism development and the factors that facilitate or hinder community engagement efforts. These are done through cross validation of the results of household survey, key informant interviews, focus group discussion, secondary data review and site visits and assessments. For Naujan Lake Natural Park, the formula for a thriving and sustainable ecotourism is there -the DENR which employs the government-mandated policies in the conservation and protection of NLNP; the PAMB that manages any activity and program inside the NLNP community, the support of the academe in the continuous research and community engagement services, and the support of other stakeholders of NLNP. Nonetheless, the community does not see itself as actively engaged in ecotourism for the reason that ecotourism in NLNP is not a priority as a program of sustainable protected area management. Community engagement is present in existing conservation programs but for Bangklase-an ecotourism program where tourists experience lake cruising while attending lectures onboard about the Naujan Lake and other vital issues on environmental protection and conservation-the community does not see itself as actively engaged in the program. They only know that there is Bangklase but they are uncertain where the tour operator comes from. Furthermore, no one even discusses about the bird watching activities in the lake which is another ecotourism activity. It only shows that they were not engaged in the said ecotourism activities in NLNP. In so far as ecotourism management is concerned, community engagement is on its infantile stage. This could be attributed to the fact that, tourism development as a whole and ecotourism in particular, may have not been sufficiently promoted as a tool for protected area management and conservation. Although there is a significantly positive attitude towards ecotourism in the lake, much has to be realized as far as the actual management of an existing ecotourism activity is concerned. In the pursuit of sustainability, the paper shows that in order to sustain ecotourism development in the protected area; the community must have shared benefits and responsibilities. This is demonstrated by the community's agreeable attitude in having economic activities in the lake while still being supportive of conservation efforts. There is, thus, the need to support ecotourism as a tool for protected area management and conservation. And to effectively achieve sustainable ecotourism development, the engagement of the community must be in place to facilitate the co-management and co-ownership of ecotourism activities in protected area.

This study was conducted in light of the proposals made in 2014 to declare Ermita in Manila as a "Heritage Zone" in accordance with the Natural Cultural Heritage Act of 2009 (Republic Act No. 10066). The proposal specifically covered the University of the Philippines (UP) Manila complex, the Supreme Court (SC), the National Museum (NM) complex, the Manila City Hall, the Manila Post Office and the Metropolitan Theater. Given the nature and consequences of such a declaration, matters of planning, implementation and sustainability need to be addressed. Five (5) Ermita-based institutions - the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Department of Justice, UP Manila and the Philippine General Hospital (PGH) were made subjects of this study. Research focused on key institutional perspectives to answer questions on (1) the Protection and Stewardship of their cultural or historic and significant properties, and cultural heritage as a whole. and (2) the prospects of the institutions entering into partnerships to address common concerns on cultural heritage, their shared public space in Ermita and on this proposed Heritage Zone as well. How are they as Protectors and Stewards of (their) heritage, i.e. their built heritage, archival materials, marked structures and historical monuments? A scoring system was formulated to draw out results from the qualitative data gathered. In particular, a scoring spectrum was adopted in an attempt to show and explain how these dimensions are to be characterized, identified and evaluated accordingly - the existence or presence, level, range, quality and/or breadth or coverage of these categories. Qualities defining their awareness and knowledge; actions or inaction; competence, and the matter of policies, rules and programs were also covered. The second objective of the Study looked into how these institutions engaged their external environment or larger physical context/s. Precedents and new prospects of cooperation for common concerns in their shared or common public space were looked into as well. The study attempts to view and analyze their public space concerns in relation to what is termed "urban commons" and how it affects cultural property. It undertook to determine the guides or bases by which these engagements and cooperative actions are undertaken and how they can be used as indicators of future similar endeavors. In choosing these five(5) institutions, their history, mandate and functions, with their substantial physical environment, range of cultural property and status as national institutions were primary considerations. Their actions and participation can determine the success and sustainability, or failure of the proposed Heritage Zone. Such alliances and partnerships were also seen as being extended to working relations with the government. With the research objectives of this Study, meaningful and substantial participation of stakeholders are key. For this, the Study also contemplated the concerns, constraints and willingness of the institutions, as well as of the government. Research efforts focused on how their properties and the protection and stewardship thereof are intertwined or merged with both their external physical environment, e.g. the common shared public space and urban commons. To this end, the Study also looked into other possible outcomes including alternative approaches and results for heritage-oriented conservation, stewardship and partnerships in Ermita, Manila through designated historic areas such as the Heritage Zone.

The Municipality of Baler in the province of Aurora in the Philippines is becoming one of the most popular coastal tourism destinations in the country, known for its beach and surfing activities. The coastal tourism industry has become a primary source of employment, investment and local economic growth for Baler. But coastal areas, especially those in the Philippines, are exposed to natural hazards that pose a threat to lives, properties and the long term sustainability of the industry. It is imperative therefore to strengthen the disaster resilience of these destinations. The study asserts that local actors must comprehend disaster risk; have resources available; and commit to implementing programs and interventions towards integrating disaster risk reduction and management in coastal tourism development. Among the strengths of the local actors of Baler is the high level of awareness of DRMM, particularly, of the policies and guidelines on Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, natural hazards and risks, and the interventions necessary to strengthen disaster resilience. Overall, the local actors in Baler's coastal tourism industry have done well in cooperating and utilizing a truly whole-of-society approach that is consultative and participatory towards building disaster resilient coastal tourism development. Baler can therefore become a resource for other local governments and developers to understanding how disaster resilience can be mainstreamed into coastal tourism development.