College of Education

Theses and dissertations submitted to the College of Education

Items in this Collection

This study was prompted by the results of an earlier study I conducted on "Translanguaging in the Bi/Multilingual Mother Tongue Classroom: A Case in the Philippine Context," which purported that translanguaging or shuttling between languages is a common linguistic behavior among teachers in the MTB-MLE classrooms. In particular, it is the observation that teachers engage in translanguaging indiscriminately which led me to further investigate the translanguaging techniques teachers use and their functions. Hence, this study aimed to answer the following research questions: 1.) What translanguaging techniques do teachers use?; 2.) What functions do these translanguaging techniques fulfill?; and 3.) In what ways do teachers' translanguaging influence learners' engagement and concept understanding?

I used three primary tools to collect the data for this study, namely: Classroom Observation Form, Modified Stimulated Recall Questionnaire, and Semi-Structured Interview Protocol. Specifically, the Stimulated Recall method was modified for the purpose of this study since, unlike the typical method, I did not rely on the video recordings of classroom observations as stimuli to assist teacher respondents to recall specific instances of translanguaging. Instead, I used audio recordings, which I transcribed based on the actual instances of translanguaging which were selected through Moment Analysis. For the case study component of this research, I selected one of the five teacher-participants as the unit of analysis.

In terms of data analysis, I used Moment Analysis and Discourse Analysis to identify the translanguaging techniques teachers use, their functions and their influence on learners' engagement and concept understanding. In addition, I also employed Descriptive Statistics to show quantitatively the influence of teachers' translanguaging on concept understanding.
As answer to RQ1, three main translanguaging techniques were identified, namely: knowledge (re)construction, literal translation, and behavior (re)formation. Each of these techniques has the following sub-categories: Knowledge (Re)construction through schema activation, a question, and repetition; Literal Translation of a source text or discussion, a concept, and lexicon or sentence; and Behavior (Re)formation through prompt clarification, verbal affirmation, and action or response correction. Thus, there were a total of nine translanguaging techniques that were observed teachers in this study used.

As answer to RQ2, the functions of the identified translanguaging techniques include two primary purposes, which are to engage learners and to ensure concept understanding. In order to achieve this, the identified techniques serve the following specific functions: 1) to activate schema; 2) to clarify; 3) to emphasize; 4) to scaffold; 5) to familiarize, 6) to affirm a learner's response; and/or 7) correct a learner's response or behavior. In terms of the results of the Case Study, the teacher's use of translanguaging promoted the following functions: 1) to promote learners' linguistic development; 2) to develop learners' metalinguistic awareness; 3) to develop a stronger sense of multilingual identity among the learners; and 4) to promote local cultural identity among the learners.

As answer to RQ3, I found out through classroom observations and the teachers' responses in the Modified Stimulated Recall Questionnaire that teachers' translanguaging helped learners to become more engaged and give correct answers. In addition, the results. of the data analyzed through descriptive statistics show that translanguaging seemed to have influenced learners' performance in their formative assessment in English and Science lessons. Learners also recorded the highest performance in Filipino despite low cases of translanguaging in that subject, which can be attributed to the fact that Filipino is the learners' lingua franca. Thus, translanguaging may not always be necessary in the Filipino class as learners already understood most of the concepts and terms. The data collected and analyzed here support that teachers' translanguaging promoted learner engagement and concept understanding.

The findings in this study are consistent with previous studies (Lasagabaster & Garcia, 2014; Allard, 2017; Cenoz, 2017; Duarte, 2018) which claim that shuttling between languages is a common linguistic behavior among multilingual individuals. A similar behavior was observed among the five Grade 3 multilingual teachers who were observed for two weeks at a time teaching English, Filipino and Science classes. This supports many observations (Hornberger & Link, 2012; De Los Reyes, 2018; Makalela 2019) that multilingual teachers naturally shift from one language to another as a way to help learners engage more actively in class and understand their lessons better.

The results of this study reveal the following: first, translanguaging can be an effective tool that MTB-MLE teachers should adopt to help facilitate learning. Based on the results of the study, translanguaging is primarily used to promote learner engagement and concept understanding. Next, translanguaging demands careful planning. As proposed in this study, using translanguaging as a pedagogical tool requires deliberate steps to ensure that both teachers and learners benefit from it. Third, translanguaging is a deliberate process in that teachers only oscillate between being less deliberate and more deliberate. This was evident when the teachers were observed to be consciously making decisions to shift from a less familiar language to a more familiar one to facilitate learning. Fourth, MTB-MLE teachers need training on the use of translanguaging as a pedagogical tool. This is because teachers need to be familiar with the various translanguaging techniques and functions as identified in this study. Finally, it can be concluded from the results of the study that training in using translanguaging as a pedagogical tool is most needed by teachers whose language of instruction in their subject area is not the most familiar to the learners. Based on the results of this study, I developed a proposed theoretical framework and a set of guidelines for the use of translanguaging as a pedagogical tool.

This study examined the effects of empathy lessons and prosocial lessons on the prosocial behavior of preschool children. One class (n=12) of kindergarteners received 10 researcher-made empathy lessons while another class (n— 1 2) of kindergarteners received 10 researcher-made prosocial lessons. This study used a mixed method approach. with a two-group pre-test — post-test quasi-experimental research design and selected participant observations.

The prosocial behavior rating scale was used to compare the effects of the intervention on the prosocial behavior of the participants within groups. The situational tests and the prosocial moral reasoning test were used to compare the results between the empathy group and the prosocial group after the intervention. The naturalistic observations and interview to the parents were used to identify patterns of prosocial behavior exhibited by the participants.

In comparing between groups after the intervention. the study found that the empathy group showed significantly higher sharing behavior after the intervention. Both groups demonstrated needs-oriented reasoning. Patterns of sharing. helping and giving comfort behavior were also identified. However. there was no significant difference in the prosocial behaviors of both groups before and after the intervention.

It was recommended that more priority be given to promoting prosocial behavior in preschool. More studies on giving comfort behavior, the behavior least exhibited. may be conducted. The empathy lessons and prosocial lessons may be further refined by taking into consideration the patterns of prosocial behavior that were identified in this research.

The purpose of this research was to find out the development of a change management competencies framework for public secondary school principals in the National Capital Region. It attempted to answer the questions, "What change management competencies framework can be develop for public secondary school principals in the National Capital Region?" The study used mixed method convergent parallel design and utilized multiple-case study. This research consists of three strands namely: (1) the Quantitative analysis, (2) the Qualitative analysis, and (3) the development of change management competencies model for the public secondary school principals in the National Capital Region. For the quantitative analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were used while for the qualitative analysis, thematic coding with the use of In Vivo and Atlas Ti.

The study shows that the change management competencies of the public secondary school principals are as follows: in terms of school leadership, there were six competencies formulated; six competencies were developed in terms of innovation; and lastly, in terms of personal excellence, there were seven developed competencies. Specific implications and recommendations were based on the findings, and one of this is for the Schools Division Superintendent in his capacity as policy maker should organize a principals development program to enhance the competencies of the principals particularly in change management.

This study aimed to explore creativity in counseling among private and public school counselors. Creativity in counseling is a widely discussed matter among counselors from overseas but it has not been explored much in local setting. Counselors from both private and public schools were chosen as participants so as to get a more realistic view of their perceptions and needs given the differences in their plight as school counselors.

The researcher utilized the Grounded Theory Approach, which is a method that studies peoples' experiences with a process and creates a theory of how the process works. One-on-one interviews were conducted during data collection while the rigorous and detailed procedures of open coding, axial coding and selective coding were followed during data analysis.
In general, private and public school counselors had an idea of what creativity in counseling is. They were able to recognize the situations that prompted them to use creative counseling approaches. The objectives and basic processes of the counseling approaches that they practiced were comparable to what counselors from overseas are employing. Many of them expressed their need for support from administration, teachers, and parents. Many of them have also conveyed how the nature of their work in their respected schools had affected the time they spent in actual counseling work and in following up their clients. They have also communicated their openness and desire to undergo more training in creativity in counseling. Despite the lack of resources and support, the counselors were still able to be creative because of their innate desire to be of help to their clients.

It was revealed that the plight of counselors from public schools had been more complex compared to their counterparts in the private schools. It would be beneficial if the concerned government offices could look further into the experiences and situations of these counselors particularly in the areas of financial and moral support, compensation, loading and training.
It is recommended a similar study can be done wherein clients will be considered as participants. In this way, the counselors' claimed creativity in counseling can be confirmed through the experiences of the clients.

This case study described the process of developing an instructional design for a community-based English curriculum in the primary grades. The study aimed to produce an instructional design for primary grades English as a result of the collaborative/participative effort of the schools' stakeholders to include the school principal, the teachers, the parents, the local government unit, and other members of a barangay.

Relying on the theory that the best decisions are those made by stakeholders at the
point of implementation as articulated by the school-based management (SBM) paradigm and empowered by Republic Act (RA) 9155 that upheld principal empowerment in school governance, the study engaged the educational stakeholders in the production of an instructional design in three major stages: situational analysis, collaborative and participative processes, and production of output. The first stage situated the study from which the intended output was to draw context. The second stage actively engaged the stakeholders in organizing themselves, participating in scheduled group studies, contextualizing Grades 1 to 3 of the new K-12 basic education English curriculum, drawing the instructional design, drafting the instructional design, and finally validating the instructional design.

The study concluded that, given the impetus of a congenial interaction and determined leadership; the school principal, teachers, parents and other members of the community could productively work together to implement a community-based English curriculum via an instructional design. By developing an instructional design that incorporated the community's expressed expectations of learning for their children and using the community's fund of knowledge and resources for instruction whether these be materials or human entities, the study proved that relevance and meaning in instructional delivery could very well be the result of school-based management and collaboration among educational stakeholders in various capacities.

Many lessons were learned in this study, foremost of which was the necessity of building respect and trust among all stakeholders as a prelude to working cooperatively for the development of an instructional design in primary English. The perception of stakeholders working together according to their respective capabilities pointed to the
efficacy of collaboration and participation in potentially facilitating the total development of a learner for a better community.