College of Education

Theses and dissertations submitted to the College of Education

Items in this Collection

The study aimed to develop a checklist and a rating scale version of the Leadership Potential Inventory for Adolescents (LPIA). Specifically, it sought to establish reliability and validity of these two versions of the Inventory. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was applied for internal consistency (reliability). Three procedures were followed to validate the two versions. First, content validation for the LPIA item pool was undertaken by a test development expert with more than 30 years of experience in measurement. Second, factor analysis was performed to identify the underlying dimensions of the two versions of the Inventory. Finally, convergent validity of LPIA dimensions with ten factors of a standardized personality test associated with leadership was established using Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient. Six hundred seventy-one (n = 671) adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from 4 public and 4 private schools in Metro Manila (50.37% third year and 49.63% fourth year high school) participated in two stages of instrument development. After a review of literature on checklists and rating scales, and instruments measuring youth leadership, a Table of Specifications (TOS) was developed, with two parts, Personal Characteristics and Relational Skills. The TOS was the blueprint in writing 83 statements for the initial item pool, which was content validated by a measurement expert. The revised item pool was then presented in checklist and rating scale (“Very true of me” to “Not at all true of me”) formats, and administered to 432 high school students. Item and test statistics (Cronbach’s alpha) were used to select 35 items in the final versions. Two hundred thirty-nine adolescents responded to the final versions and the 16PF, a standardized personality test used for convergent validity. Both checklist and rating scale were found to be reliable, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84 for the checklist and 0.92 for the rating scale. The two parts, Personal Characteristics (k = 20) and Relational Skills (k = 15), also had high internal consistency, 0.74 and 0.73 respectively for the checklist, and the same value, 0.87, for the rating scale. Cronbach’s alpha was higher for the entire instrument, than for each of the two parts, whether it be the checklist or the rating scale version. This supports the theory that longer tests are more reliable than shorter ones. Reliability coefficients for the rating scale, whether for the entire scale (k = 35) and subparts, were higher than those for the checklist, confirming that instruments with interval scaling are more reliable than those using lower scaling levels. Among three factor analyses (2-, 3-, and 4-factor solutions) performed separately for the checklist and rating scale, the three-factor solution was chosen because it most coherently organized the items in the two versions of the instrument. These three factors were Logical Competence, Group Orientation, and Communication Skills, the three factors accounting for 28% of the variance in the checklist, and 41% in the rating scale. Convergent validity of the three dimensions of the LPIA checklist and rating scale versions was determined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficients computed between the three LPIA factor scores and ten 16PF factors associated with leadership. Correlation coefficients varied in strength, but all of them were significant at alpha level = 0.05. For the checklist version, the 16PF factors Reasoning, Perfectionism, and Sensitivity correlated highest significantly with LPIA factor Logical Competence; Self-reliance, Tension, Dominance, and Abstractedness with LPIA factor Group Orientation; and Emotional Stability, Liveliness, and Social Boldness with LPIA factor Communication Skills. For the rating scale, 16PF factors Self-reliance, Social Boldness, Tension, and Sensitivity correlated highest with Group Orientation; Emotional Stability, Liveliness, and Perfectionism with Communication Skills; and Reasoning, Dominance, and Abstractedness with Logical Competence. The study concludes that the checklist and rating scale versions of the LPIA both have internal consistency. Rating scale, however, is more reliable than the checklist, and the whole instrument has higher internal consistency than any of its parts. The study also defines Leadership Potential in terms of three dimensions, Logical Competence, Group Orientation, and Communication Skills. A good leader is one who possesses critical thought, ability to maintain unity in the group, and proficiency in verbal exchange. Finally the study confirmed convergent validity with ten factors associated with leadership in the standardized personality inventory.


This study aimed to determine whether the Illuminative Evaluation Model, with its three-stage framework: Investigate, Inquire further, and Explain, can be used as a methodology in understanding the influences of the hidden curriculum on the character development of preschool students. In Stage 1: Investigate document analysis, observations, and interviews were conducted to examine the characteristics aimed to be developed through the formal curriculum, and the deviations and unintended outcomes that occurred during implementation. In Stage 2: Inquire further surveys, structured observations, and focus-group discussions were conducted to progressively focus on selected issues. In Stage 3: Explain principles and patterns were organized to describe the hidden curriculum. Findings revealed that the hidden curriculum functioned through the following: (1) inculcation of school values and principles; (2) use of various approaches to character development; (3) development of readiness for formal schooling; (4) functions of the physical environment; and (5) consideration of managerial and policy concerns beyond classroom doors. In conclusion, the Illuminative Evaluation Model was found to be effective as a tool in determining the influences of hidden curriculum on students’ character development.


This research, which utilized a descriptive – correlational design, aimed to investigate the principals’ leadership styles and if these influence their perceptions of the effectiveness of the teacher evaluation methods they employ in improving teaching and learning and in fostering professional growth. The target population for the study included 10 principals and 60 teachers. The 70 respondents accomplished the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) Form XII and the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) Form XII – Self to gather their perceptions of the principals’ leadership styles. In addition, the 10 principal respondents accomplished a Teacher Evaluation Survey to gather their perceptions of the effectiveness of the teacher evaluation methods they employ in improving teaching and learning and in fostering professional growth and responded to interviews about their perceptions of teacher evaluation. After a careful analysis of the data gathered from the LBDQ accomplished by the principals and the teachers, it found out that half of the principals (50%) rated themselves as system – oriented, while 40% rated themselves as person – oriented, and one principal rated himself the same in both dimensions. Whereas, 60% of the teachers rated their principals as person – oriented, while 40% rated their principals as system – oriented. Consequently, when the independent t – test was employed on the principals and the teachers ratings, it showed that there is no significant difference between the self – and observational – ratings of the principals’ leadership styles with the exception of Principals 3, 4, and 9. Moreover, the study established, using one – way MANOVA, that the principals’ personal and professional characteristics have no effect on their leadership styles. Subsequently, the data gathered from the semi – structured exploratory interviews conducted with the principals revealed that they perceived teacher evaluations as a means to attain quality education and an opportunity for professional growth. In addition, the one – way ANOVA test performed on the data gathered from the TES showed that the principals rated teacher evaluation methods differently when its purpose is to improve teaching and learning. Principals preferred student evaluation over the other teacher evaluation methods and named peer evaluation as the least effective teacher evaluation method. Furthermore, an independent t – test reported that the principals’ educational attainment is a good predictor when it comes to rating the effectiveness of classroom observation as a means to improve teaching and learning as well as when it comes to rating the effectiveness of student evaluation as a means to foster professional growth. Lastly, the study revealed, through the use of Spearman Rho, that the system – oriented and person – oriented leadership styles have an effect on the principals’ perceptions of the effectiveness of self – evaluation when its purpose is to improve teaching and learning. Whereas, both leadership styles have an effect on the principals’ perceptions of the self – evaluation’s effectiveness and only the system – oriented leadership style has an effect on the peer evaluation’s effectiveness when its purpose is to foster professional growth. In conclusion, the study attested that the leadership styles principal espouse influence their perceptions of the effectiveness of some of the evaluation methods they employ. Recommendations include letting principals have access to seminars, trainings, workshop that will tap their full potential and aid them in guiding their teachers in the necessary direction to be effective and efficient.


Special education teachers (SPED) and general education teachers (GENED) handling children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are faced with daily challenges of meeting the needs of these children. Behaviors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity are constant concerns in the classrooms. This research aimed to identify behavior management practices or strategies used by SPED and GENED teachers from different schools of Metro Manila in managing students with ADHD. Researcher-made questionnaires, observations and interviews were used to collect these data. One hundred six teachers consisting of 53 SPED and 53 GENED teachers participated in the study. Thirty two of these were observed and interviewed.

Data of the study revealed that the most prevalent atypical behaviors encountered by all teachers were (a) failure to give close attention to details or making careless mistakes and (b) being often distracted by extraneous stimuli. These were followed closely by (c) difficulty organizing tasks and activities and (d) difficulty following through directions along with leaves seat in the classroom. Results also showed that SPED and GENED teachers from public and private schools regarded 6 symptoms as difficult to manage, 3 of which were symptoms of inattention and the other 3 were symptoms of hyperactivity. These were (a) not following through on instructions; (b) having difficulty organizing task and activities; (c) avoiding, disliking or being reluctant to do task that requires sustain mental effort; (d) leaving seat; (e) running around and climbing excessively; and (f) being always on the go as if driven by a motor. Finally, the most practiced behavior management strategy of SPED and GENED teachers to manage most of the characteristics of students with ADHD was verbal prompting. Data also showed that SPED teachers have more strategies to deal with students with ADHD while GENED teachers were limited to few techniques only. It is recommended that SPED and GENED teachers handling students with ADHD should be given continuous trainings, Collaboration between the SPED and GENED teachers should be strengthened, while administrators of schools must provide training or mentoring for novice teachers of children with ADHD. A manual of behavior management techniques should be created to serve as a ready reference. In addition to these, future studies should also include more time allotment for observation, conduct of training be done in the middle of school year, finding the relationship between perceived difficulty of teachers in handling ADHD characteristics and profile variables, and the conduct of study to all NCR schools and provinces outside Metro Manila.


Caregivers, who assist in personal needs, are an influential support group to girls with developmental delays, who enter puberty and experience menstruation. These caregivers would be among their first teachers, who would teach the most important aspects of personal health care skills during menstruation. These skills include wearing and disposing sanitary pads or other similar absorbent items, and washing the genitals. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) had been employed over the past decades in teaching personal health care skills. The purpose of the study was to determine the caregivers’ personal health care knowledge and skills on menstruation for girls with disabilities, particularly, developmental delays. From this data, an instructional program and instructional manual were developed to help improve the knowledge and skills of caregivers. ABA was the main teaching strategy taught to caregivers, who performed teaching personal health care skills to girls with developmental delays.

The Seels and Glasgow Project Management Design (1990) was adapted to create a research model, while a pretest-posttest single group design was utilized to determine the effect of the instructional program. Thirty caregivers were interviewed, and it was found that they rated themselves as having sufficient knowledge and skills in personal health care during menstruation for girls with developmental delays (40%). However, further probing showed that their responses were incomplete (50%). This meant that there is room for improvement inpersonal health care knowledge and skills for teaching children with developmental delays. Moreover, caregivers expressed their need to learn more, particularly about teaching strategies (70%). They also reported the need for instructional materials when learning (93%), and requested for books with pictures (34%). Almost all caregivers (97%) said they need instructional materials for teaching children with developmental delays as well. The instructional sessions focused on teaching strategies for personal health care during menstruation,augmented by the use of an instructional manual, Tanglaw. Ten caregivers attended instructional sessions for 10 days. Their posttest showed a significant increase in knowledge (z = -2.807, p<.005), and indicated an average skill acquisition (M = 50, SD = 8.94)in thepersonal health care performance test. Caregivers acquired the basic knowledge and skills to perform personal health care during menstruation using ABA principles such as task analyses, prompting, and reinforcement. Determined sareas of improvement include gathering data ofchildren’s progress and utilization of immediate, appropriate reinforcements. Future directions include follow-ups on caregivers’ skill maintenance and actual practice with children with developmental delays.